Hyperadrenocorticism is the most common cause of insulin resistance in dogs. Other causes edit edit source overweight is linked in humans to insulin resistance though the mechanisms are not fully understood.
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In diabetic dogs many concurrent diseases can cause resistance to exogenous insulin.
Causes of insulin resistance in dogs. This is a useful finding as most unregulated diabetic dogs become thinner over time. A possible issue is the formation of anti insulin antibodies that may result in insulin resistance. The most common concurrent disorders in diabetic dogs are hyperadrenocorticism urinary tract infection acute pancreatitis neoplasia and hypothyroidism.
Insulin resistance caused by anti insulin antibodies is likely rare in small animals and is difficult to diagnose. A dog might develop absorption problems after having been diabetic for an extended period of time. Recognition of concurrent hyperadrenocorticism and diabetes mellitus can be challenging as the clinical signs of cushings disease endocrine alopecia thin skin and a pot bellied appearance may not be readily apparent on initial diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.
Weight gain can also cause insulin resistance. Other identified causes are hyperadrenocorticism bacterial infections diestrus acromegaly chronic pancreatitis hypothyroidism hyperlipidemia and obesity neoplasia and renal diseases. Insulin resistance causes in dogs.
The somogyi response also called rebound hyperglycemia and insulin induced hyperglycemia is the physiologic response to impending hypoglycemia. There are several reasons why a dog might develop insulin resistance. In the dog beef containing insulin products are more likely to be antigenic vs pork insulin or recombinant human insulin.
Just because the insulin is injected under the skin doesnt mean it is effectively absorbed. When a concurrent disorder is treated the insulin dose should be decreased to avoid possible hypoglycemia. Insulin resistance is also known as insulin antagonism.
The most common disorders causing insulin resistance in dogs include severe obesity use of diabetogenic drugs glucocorticoids hyperadrenocorticism diestrus chronic pancreatitis renal insufficiency oral and urinary tract infections hyperlipidemia and anti insulin antibodies in dogs receiving beef source insulin. Hypothyroidism is a recognized cause of insulin resistance and was noted in 4 of diabetic dogs in one study2023 patients with insulin resistance due to thyroid disease often slowly gain weight despite persistent hyperglycemia. This response is characterized by stimulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis and secretion of diabetogenic hormones including catecholamines and glucagon.
Obese cats and dogs also display a degree of insulin resistance also known as a lack of insulin sensitivity due to obesity which may in turn in some cases lead to diabetes. If the injections have been done repeatedly in the same area the tissue can toughen and cause the insulin to pool rather than be absorbed. Incidence risk factors.